All About the Different Types of Ants

Ants – fascinating! They’ve adapted to many environments, from forests to deserts, and even human homes. From several millimeters to centimeters, they live in colonies with complex social structures. Let’s learn about different types of ants and where they live!

  • Type of ants
  • Where they live


Overview of Ants

Ants are incredibly diverse and resilient insects. They can be found around the world, in places like cities, deserts, and even rainforests. They build vast networks of tunnels and nests, and have more than 12,000 species!

Ants share many features with other Hymenoptera – they have three body parts, two antennae, four sets of legs, compound eyes, and a thin waist.

Their lifecycle consists of egg-laying queens, mating drones, workers who search for food and care for larvae, and soldiers who defend the colony.

Researchers have identified four types of ants:

  1. Social parasites who live off other species’ work
  2. Primitive ants that live in small, unrelated groups
  3. Primitively eusocial species with only one queen
  4. Eusocial species with complex societies and castes assigned by a central queen.


Types of Ants

Ants are everywhere – except Antarctica! They come in all shapes and sizes. There are over 100,000 species! Let’s delve into the various types of ants and their peculiarities.


Fire Ants

Fire ants, known as Solenopsis Invicta, are common and aggressive. Their nests can reach 18 inches tall and contain thousands of them. They are bright red with black antennae and head, and less than a quarter of an inch in size.

Fire ants are territorial, making them hard to control. They fiercely attack any intruder who disturbs their nest or mound. Their stings can cause bumps or lesions on skin. Also, they can be dangerous for babies, small children, and elderly due to their powerful venom which may cause serious allergies.

However, when left undisturbed they usually live peacefully with other insect species. Plus, their colonies help aerate the soil by letting air flow and increasing water permeability. And, they feed on mosquitoes and other small insects; saving us from certain diseases!


Carpenter Ants

Carpenter ants have 3 body parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. Its head has black eyes, and two short antennae. Its thorax contains 3 overlapping segments and 6 legs. They have a petiolate node on their abdomen and a spine at the posterior end. Their color varies depending on where they live, but they’re usually black and red.

They construct nests inside wood like trees or buildings. As they carve tunnels, they leave sawdust-like material behind. These tunnels are called “galleries“.

The larvae develop in these galleries until becoming adult workers. The workers then expand the colony’s nesting territory, growing the colony in size.


Harvester Ants

Harvester ants are known for their unusual habits of gathering plants and seeds. Their colonies are gigantic, with a strict hierarchical structure. They love to munch on small grains like oats and wheat, but any plants do.

Harvester ant nests are usually found in open, sunny spots with shallow soil. These ants have the skill to build intricate networks underground. Sometimes, the mound can reach 4 meters tall! The nest consists of chambers linked by tunnels, with its deepest parts hidden beneath the ground, to keep predators out.

Harvester ants live together and work as a team. They search for food, rear young ones, and protect the colony from threats. A single colony may contain millions of individuals, 0.5 – 1 cm long, depending on their role (worker or soldier). The queen can be 10 times bigger, reaching 2 cm!

These ants can be a menace when they look for food. Some species have stingers (soldiers) and can bite, which can be very painful. In such cases, medical attention is needed.


Pharaoh Ants

Pharaoh ants (Monomorium pharaonis) are small, bright red-yellow pests. From the Middle East, they have spread to Latin America, Africa, Europe, Australia and the U.S.A.

These ants are 1/16th to 1/32nd of an inch long. Pale yellow legs and antennae are distinctive features. They also have a segmented body, with head, thorax and abdomen. Colonies can contain many workers and queens – all reproducing. This enables them to spread fast.

Pharaoh ants feed on sugary substances like honeydew from plants and other insects. They also eat meats, bread crumbs and lip balm! Outdoors, they can survive in many climates. Indoors, they can access more food sources. This makes them a health hazard.

Control requires locating nesting spots. Then, baiting or insecticides can be applied. Pest controllers may be needed for extended and severe infestations. Treatments may need to be repeated for complete colony removal.


Odorous House Ants

Odorous house ants can be found all over the US. They are small and dark in color. Their colonies can have up to thousands of members.

To identify an infestation, look for piles of dirt, sand, and other debris near their entrance holes. Trails may lead to food sources like pantries and kitchens. Their distinguishing feature is their musty smell. When crushed, they smell like rotten coconut. They can spread serious diseases like salmonella.

To reduce infestations, contact a professional pest control specialist.

Ant Habits

Ants exist in many places. Each type has different behavior and lifestyle. Depends on the species, they eat various food and live in different habitats.

Let’s look closer at the habits of different kinds of ants to better understand them:


Feeding Habits

Ants have different feeding habits. Some scavenge for food, others eat plants, and some even hunt prey.

  • Scavenging ants look for any nutrition they can find. They gather around a food source in large numbers, and even share the spoils with their colony.
  • Herbivorous ants consume plants or the honeydew secreted by aphids living on them. This is why they are sometimes called ‘honeydew gathering ants’ or ‘aphid ranching ants’.
  • Predator ants eat other small insects and arthropods, like caterpillars and spiders. Some can even take down small mammals like mice! Some species have venom glands near their abdomen to help them capture prey.

All ant species feed on proteins, carbs, sugars, and carbohydrates such as cellulose or chitin. Each species has its own unique approach when it comes to finding food!


Nesting Habits

Ants are social insects that live in colonies with many millions. They build and maintain complex nests, with chambers, galleries, and tunnels. These nests can be above or below ground and are either temporary or permanent.

Temporary nests are made of soil kicked up by workers as they dig chambers for the egg-laying queen or larvae. Certain ant species have nests that house both workers and a colony of eggs, larvae, and pupae. Cocoons give larvae the perfect environment to develop into adults. The nests are made of saliva, adhesive soup, and a gelatinous mixture from the gut. They are then packed with organic material like leaves, grass, and wood chips for airtightness. These nests may be abandoned when resources are gone or there is a predator.

Permanent nests include chambers for waste storage. This helps create a homeostatic environment, with heat and moisture, and reducing CO2 and O2 gradients. Ant colonies may cohabitate with other species. A temporary nest of 4-5 feet can quickly expand to 7-8 feet indoors. Environmental factors like temperature, light, and humidity affect the size of the nest. It is important to understand these conditions, and treat any insecticides.


Reproduction Habits

Ants have unique reproductive habits; they are social insects, so many individuals must work together for colony success. Ants reproduce in large numbers and are efficient to survive.

Most ant species have a division of labor system. The castes or roles provide for the colony’s short-term and long-term welfare. Workers and soldiers can be identified by size and shape, as well as the tasks they perform. Reproductive populations consist of males and queens; these individuals have biological functions for reproduction.

Males select genes by mating with multiple females. Queens control reproduction by producing eggs from sperm stored from prior mating. Virgin queens leave the nest to start new colonies. They are typically winged early in life, but lose their wings after they mate and make a new nest. Fertilized queens may also become wingless. The queen continues to mate until her sperm stores are full, then she no longer needs males and remains solitary while laying hundreds or thousands of eggs throughout her lifetime.


Ant Control

Ant Control is a must for maintaining balance in your home or garden. It’s key to learn about the types of ants, their behavior, and what to do for control. Here, we’ll explain the different kinds of ants, their habits, and how to recognize them:

  • Types of ants
  • Ant behavior
  • Recognizing ants


Natural Ant Control

Pesticides and store-bought ant control products are efficient. But many people want a more natural solution. Everyday items can be used to deter ants from your home or yard.

Create barriers or disrupt ant paths with cinnamon, chili pepper, or diatomaceous earth. Attract ants with sugar and honey mixed with borax. It will interfere with the ants’ digestive systems and cause them to die from dehydration.

Citrus oils are a great ant deterrent. Spray essential oil blends of citronella, lemongrass, and orange oil around windowsills and doors.

Mulch with moist soil to prevent some species of ants. Remove decaying leaves, sticks, and stones. Secure garbage cans, vacuum often, mop with soap and water, caulk gaps near windowsills/doorframes, and seal cracks on walls. These things will help reduce ant populations indoors and outdoors.


Chemical Ant Control

Chemicals are a popular ant control measure. If manual removal isn’t working, chemical treatments may be the only way. Different types of ant control chemicals exist, and it’s important to know which works best for you.

Here are some of the most common types of ant control chemicals:

  • Bait-based Tactics: Baits attract ants and provide them with slow-acting poison. Traps or granules laced with poison can be placed in ant nests or paths. Once eaten, the poison will spread throughout the colony and eliminate it.
  • Residual Sprays: Residual sprays contain insecticides. They help create a barrier around your home. Ants that touch it will die. This offers lasting protection against ants entering your home for up to several months.
  • Dust Injections: If you have large colonies of ants outdoors, dust injections can help. You must first drill small holes into hard-to-reach areas. Insecticide dust is injected directly onto the colonies. It spreads and kills entire colonies within 24 hours of application.


Prevention Tips

Ants have been around for millions of years. They won’t go away soon. Prevention is the best defense against them! Here are some tips:

  • Caulk, foam insulation or weatherstripping can seal any cracks or holes in windows and doors.
  • Reduce moisture sources: leaky pipes, poor drainage systems, cold surface condensation, landscaping near foundations.
  • Store food in tightly sealed containers with lids that latch securely. Keep away from entry points.
  • Secure garbage cans, dispose of garbage regularly. Or invest in a locked lid unit.
  • Use repellent spray around seen ant activity. Read labels carefully, some can be toxic when used wrong.
  • Eliminate unnecessary vegetation like tall grass near house foundations.
  • Put pet food dishes away after each feeding, to avoid attracting ants.



Ants have many roles in an ecosystem. Like, they offer food, soil aeration and pest control. There are diverse types of ants in the world. Some are more common than the others. They differ in behavior and genetics.

We can categorize them by their diet, lifecycle and where they live. It’s important to understand the types of ants to successfully fight them when they become a problem for people or our environment.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the different kinds of ants?

There are over 12,000 species of ants around the world. The most common ant species include carpenter ants, fire ants, pharaoh ants, and odorous house ants.

Where do ants live?

Ants are found on every continent except Antarctica. Ants live in a variety of habitats including forests, deserts, and even in our homes.

How do ants communicate?

Ants communicate with each other using pheromones, which are chemicals that ants release to send messages. They also communicate using vibrations and physical contact.