How Long Do Ants Live? The Lifespan of Different Ant Species Explained

Ants are one of the most common insects found worldwide. They are known for their fascinating social behavior and their ability to work together to build complex colonies. However, have you ever wondered how long ants live?

The lifespan of an ant varies depending on the species and the role they play in the colony. Worker ants, which are responsible for gathering food and taking care of the young, typically live for a few months to a year. Queens, on the other hand, can live for several years or even decades, depending on the species.

Understanding the lifespan of ants is important for researchers studying ant behavior and ecology. It can also help homeowners who are dealing with ant infestations to better understand the life cycle of these insects and develop more effective pest control strategies.


Overview of Ants

Ants are so tough! They live in colonies, and come in many kinds, shapes and sizes. Most of us think they just don’t live very long. But, they can live for a really long time! Let us explore more about these hardworking insects and their lifespan.


Types of ants

Ants come in many varieties. 12,000 species have been identified and are divided into two main types: true ants, of the family Formicidae, and fire ants, which belong to the subfamily Myrmicinae. Common kinds include:

  • Carpenter Ants: These are usually black or red-brown, with one node between their thorax and abdomen. They occupy wooded areas, and build nests inside wood.
  • Field Ants: Red-brown or black, with a red head and legs, these ants live in soil, and make mounds on exposed dirt.
  • Odorous House Ants: Dark brown or black, these ants emit a stronger smell when crushed. They favor water sources, like drainage systems in kitchens and bathrooms, and can come indoors.
  • Pavement Ants: Black to dark brown, and wingless, these ants inhabit pavement cracks, sidewalks and walls. They may enter homes in search of food.
  • Silverfish Ants: Not an ant, but resembling one, they are actually part of the Zygentoma order. They have a long, slender body, without segmentation, and three long bristles at one end. Found in humid places, such as kitchens, bathrooms, and crawl spaces beneath homes.


Characteristics of ants

Ants are small arthropods that belong to the Hymenoptera order. They come in many colors and sizes, up to 20mm (0.8in). They have six legs and two antennae, which they use to sense their environment. Plus, ants have compound eyes with many lenses, to see a wide variety of colors and details.

Ants are social, living in large colonies with thousands or even millions of individuals. They build nests with soil or other materials and form underground tunnels for protection and communication. Colonies consist of workers, soldiers, and queens, all with different sizes and appearances according to their social roles.

Ants can live from weeks to years, depending on the species. The queen ant can reach 30 years of age! Even though their individual lifespan is short, as a species, ants have been around for at least 120 million years.


Ant Lifespan

Ants’ amazing building skills, social behaviours, and survival talents are renowned. Yet, their lifespan is lesser known. So let’s take a look at their average life span, as well as its variations depending on the species.


Factors that affect ant lifespan

The duration of an ant’s life is dependent on several matters, such as the species and their habitat’s conditions. Ants have the capacity to live for 30 years when in great conditions. Some species even live longer than that. The availability of food and the temperature of their habitat also shape their lifespan.

It is essential to note that the average life span of a soldier or worker ant is far shorter than a queen ant. Worker and soldier ants solely live for 2 to 3 years in most cases. Though, if the conditions are right, it can be extended. On the other hand, if a queen ant is given the right care and protection, they can live up to 30 years.

Apart from the lifespan associated with species, the physiological states of an ant species also affect its life expectancy. For instance:

  • Worker and soldier ants have shorter lifespans since they work hard daily.
  • Queen ants live longer since they are safe in their colonies.
  • Winged males die shortly after mating because their wings hinder them from gathering food or defending themselves from predators.


Average lifespan of ants

Ants’ lifespans vary vastly, depending on their species, gender, and role in the colony:

  • Queen ants may live for 10+ years.
  • Worker ants usually live a few months or weeks.
  • Some species of ants survive in the wild for 8 years.
  • Workers typically die after summer activity or when ill/injured.
  • Males that mate can last days or weeks, due to self-sacrifice or post-copulatory dismemberment.
  • Colonies with reproductive males can live multiple seasons, as they help expand colonies through mating flights.
  • Males can live 6 months to 2 years while taking part in mating opportunities.
  • Unmated males can survive until resources are limited, or predators appear in the environment.


Ant Reproduction

Ants: Fascinating creatures! Their lifespans are so varied. Queens, all female and fertile, can live for many years – up to 10-30! On the other hand, worker ants, also female but sterile, have a much shorter life span – 1-3 years.

So, how long do ants live? Let’s investigate further!


Ant mating process

Ants mate in complex ways, depending on their species. In a process called “nuptial flight“, males and females fly into the sky in large groups and reproduce. Males die shortly afterwards since they cannot feed themselves.

The females then return to the ground, where they may start their own colony or attack another one. If they choose to start their own, they dig a hole and lay eggs. They hatch within hours, and the newborns become worker ants.

Worker ants care for eggs, search for food and protect the queen. They live up to one year, while adults live 3-5 years, based on weather and food availability. Queens, however, can live up to 15 years or more. Some ant species have multiple queens who compete for dominance by creating different colonies with different genetics. Even if the queen perishes, the colony still remains active, with eggs being laid without adults present!


Ant egg and larva stages

Ants have four stages of development: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. The cycle starts when eggs are laid. The larvae are nurse workers that feed themselves and others until they become adults. They molt several times before maturing and reproducing.

The egg stage is short. Eggs hatch within days to weeks. During this stage, immature ants rely on adult ants to incubate and feed them.

Young ants live in two primary larva phasesgrub (immobile) and pupa (mobile). They need regular feeding from adults during this time, especially in the grub phase. Then, they pupate for 7-10 days or more. This changes them into winged or wingless workers or reproductives (queens/males). Finally, they become adults and start reproducing and expanding their colonies.


Ants in Human Life

Ants and humans have had a long-standing relationship for thousands of years. You can spot them foraging for food around your home. Plus, they even aid in the ecosystem!

Ants are amazingly strong and have short life cycles. Usually, their lifespan is from several weeks to a few months. In this section, we’ll take a look at how the ants’ lifespan influences their lives with humans.


Benefits of ants

Thousands of ant species are found all over the world. They are vital to our lives and the environment, despite being a nuisance when they invade homes or eat crops.

Ants benefit both humans and the environment. They break down organic matter, aerate the soil and help redistribute nutrients for plants. Also, they act as insect predators, protecting crops from pests. Animals such as birds and fish rely on ants for food.

Ants produce antibiotics that treat bacterial or fungal infections, or even cancerous growths. They are soil monitors, too. If no ants are present, it usually means there is an issue with soil health.

Ants are part of nature’s food chain. They feed other beneficial insects, like dragonflies and ladybugs, and are eaten by larger animals, like birds and lizards. Interactions like these sustain nature and help ant species survive.


Ways to control ant populations

To manage ant populations and prevent infestations, there are many ways to do so. Examples include natural DIY solutions, bait traps, and ant sprays.

  • DIY Solutions – Salt, vinegar, kitchen soap and borax are all home remedies to remove fresh ants and keep them away. Dry areas are less likely to attract them, as they need moisture to survive.
  • Bait Traps – To decrease ant numbers, bait traps with poison can be used. Ants collect the baited food particles from one area, take it back to the colony, and other workers find it attractive. The poison spreads through the colony, eliminating the remaining ants.
  • Ant Sprays – Sprays for ant control can also work. They kill adult ants and give residual protection against further entry into that area. The reapplication frequency depends on the severity of the infestation and the environment.



Ants have lifespans of between one and three months. Some queens live up to five years! Worker ants usually live for a few weeks to one year. Queens can survive for many years and produce offspring. Male ants, however, live only a few weeks.


Summary of ant lifespan and reproduction

Ants have a long lifespan, even though they’re small. Most species can survive two to three years in the wild. Adult female ants usually live longer than males, due to their role in reproduction.

They face many threats, like predators, temperature changes, and natural disasters. Some species lay up to 700 eggs per day! From egg to adulthood, their lifecycle varies. Once mature, they may become part of the colony’s workforce, or a leader or queen.

Age-related decay and predators shorten their lifespan. But, if they are protected from danger, some species can live for multiple years. Others may only live for days or weeks, depending on seasonality and food sources.


Frequently Asked Questions

How long do carpenter ants live?

Carpenter ants typically live for about two to three years.

How long do red ants live?

Red ants usually live for about one to two years.

How long do fire ants live?

According to the search results, the lifespan of fire ants depends on their role in the colony. Worker ants usually live 4-6 weeks after emerging as adults. Fire ant workers live varying lengths of time, depending on their size and the nest temperature. Small workers live 1-2 months, medium workers live 2-3 months, and large workers live 3-6 months. Fire ant workers change duties as they age. The youngest ants tend the brood and queen